Session 3:

Anatomy and physiology of the normal human eye

Key issues for discussion

  • Review the gross anatomical structures within and related to the eyeball and discuss their basic function
  • Review the basic physiology of refraction and vision

Learning outcome

  • Identify the different structures of the eye and discuss their basic function
  • Identify different anatomical structures on teaching slides

Basic Science in relation to eye disease:
the normal retina and vision

Key issues for discussion

  • The normal anatomy of the retina
  • Photoreceptors and their biochemistry
  • Physiology of vision including colour vision

Learning outcome

  • Identify normal retinal structure on teaching slides

Other relevant ophthalmic conditions

e.g. age-related macular degeneration, vascular occlusion, glaucoma
The aging retina: Age Related Maculopathy (ARM) and Age Related Macula Degeneration (AMD)

Key issues for discussion

  • Normal changes in the aging retina
  • Abnormal changes in the aging retina
  • The constituents of drusen
  • Geographic atrophy
  • Neovascular AMD

Learning outcome

  • Identify age related changes in the retina
  • Identify and discuss different types of drusen
  • Identify geographic atrophy
  • Identify and discuss the main features of neovascular AMD

Vascular occlusion

Key issues for discussion

  • Learn normal vasculature of the eye
  • Discuss most common systemic causes of vascular problems in the eye
  • Discuss vein occlusion
  • Discuss arterial occlusion
  • Discuss clinical implications of these diseases

Learning outcome

  • Identify normal and abnormal vascular structures in the eye on teaching slides
  • Identify strategies to deal with these diseases

The normal optic nerve and its pathological changes

Key issues for discussion

  • Learn the normal anatomy of the optic nerve
  • Discuss the function of the optic nerve and its connection to the brain
  • Discuss major illnesses affecting the optic nerve
  • Discuss the main features of the glaucomatous changes of the optic nerve

Learning outcome

  • Identify the main features of the optic nerve and discuss the function
  • Identify normal optic nerve on teaching slides
  • Identify the main features of the diseased optic nerve

Before the final exam:

Study the Glaucoma referral pathway you have at your own screening programme to enable you to perform appropriate glaucoma referrals.

Describe the anatomy of the macula and the importance of the possible causes for visual loss if abnormality if within 1 DD of the fovea. 1 page maximum.

Detailed grading for "Grading slides part 03" should be handed in.

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